Firewall Konfigurieren

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Firewall Konfigurieren

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Firewall Konfigurieren Video

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Since firewalld is running in the background and provides a well defined interface it allows other applications to request changes to the iptables rules, for example to set up virtual machine networking.

A number of predefined zones like internal and public exist. The administrator can define additional custom zones if desired. Each zone contains its own set of iptables rules.

Each network interface is a member of exactly one zone. Individual connections can also be assigned to a zone based on the source addresses.

Each zone represents a certain level of trust. For example the public zone is not trusted, because other computers in this network are not under your control suitable for Internet or wireless hotspot connections.

On the other hand the internal zone is used for networks that are under your control, like a home or company network.

By utilizing zones this way, a host can offer different kinds of services to trusted networks and untrusted networks in a defined way.

The initial state for network interfaces is to be assigned to no zone at all. In this case the network interface will be implicitly handled in the default zone, which can be determined by calling firewall-cmd --get-default-zone.

If not configured otherwise, the default zone is the public zone. The firewalld packet filtering model allows any outgoing connections to pass.

Outgoing connections are connections that are actively established by the local host. Incoming connections that are established by remote hosts are blocked if the respective service is not allowed in the zone in question.

Therefore, each of the interfaces with incoming traffic must be placed in a suitable zone to allow for the desired services to be accessible.

For each of the zones, define the services or protocols you need. An important concept of firewalld is the distinction between two separate configurations: the runtime and the permanent configuration.

The runtime configuration represents the currently active rules, while the permanent configuration represents the saved rules that will be applied when restarting firewalld.

This allows to add temporary rules that will be discarded after restarting firewalld , or to experiment with new rules while being able to revert back to the original state.

When you are changing the configuration, you need to be aware of which configuration you're editing. If you want to perform the firewalld configuration using the graphical user interface firewall-config then refer to its documentation.

In the following section we will be looking at how to perform typical firewalld configuration tasks using firewall-cmd on the command line.

The NetworkManager supports a basic configuration of firewalld by selecting zones. When editing a wired or wireless connection, go to the Identity tab in the configuration window and use the Firewall Zone drop-down box.

After the installation, YaST automatically starts firewalld and leaves all interfaces in the default public zone.

If a server application is configured and activated on the system, YaST can adjust the firewall rules via the options Open Ports on Selected Interface in Firewall or Open Ports on Firewall in the server configuration modules.

Some server module dialogs include a Firewall Details button for activating additional services and ports.

By default all firewall-cmd commands operate on the runtime configuration. You can apply most operations to the permanent configuration only by adding the --permanent parameter.

When doing so the change will only affect the permanent configuration and will not be effective immediately in the runtime configuration.

There is currently no way to add a rule to both runtime and permanent configurations in a single invocation. To achieve this you can apply all necessary changes to the runtime configuration and when all is working as expected issue the following command:.

This will write all current runtime rules into the permanent configuration. Any temporary modifications you or other programs may have made to the firewall in other contexts are made permanent this way.

If you're unsure about this, you can also take the opposite approach to be on the safe side: Add new rules to the permanent configuration and reload firewalld to make them active.

Some configuration items, like the default zone, are shared by both the runtime and permanent configurations. Changing them will reflect in both configurations at once.

To revert the runtime configuration to the permanent configuration and thereby discard any temporary changes, two possibilities exist, either via the firewalld command line interface or via systemd :.

For brevity the examples in the following sections will always operate on the runtime configuration, if applicable. Adjust them accordingly if you want to make them permanent.

The following command lines assign an interface to a zone. The variant using --add-interface will only work if eth0 is not already assigned to another zone.

The variant using --change-interface will always work, removing eth0 from its current zone if necessary:. Any operations without an explicit --zone argument will implicitly operate on the default zone.

This pair of commands can be used for getting and setting the default zone assignment:. Any network interfaces not explicitly assigned to a zone will be automatically part of the default zone.

Changing the default zone will reassign all those network interfaces immediately for the permanent and runtime configurations. You should never use a trusted zone like internal as the default zone, to avoid unexpected exposure to threats.

For example hotplugged network interfaces like USB Ethernet interfaces would automatically become part of the trusted zone in such cases.

Also note that interfaces that are not explicitly part of any zone will not appear in the zone interface list. There is currently no command to list unassigned interfaces.

Due to this it is best to avoid unassigned network interfaces during regular operation. A service consists of definitions of ports and protocols.

These definitions logically belong together in the context of a given network service like a Web or mail server protocol.

The following commands can be used to get information about predefined services and their details:. These service definitions can be used for easily making the associated network functionality accessible in a zone.

The removal of a service from a zone is performed using the counterpart command --remove-service. You can also define custom services using the --new-service subcommand.

If you just want to open a single port by number, you can use the following approach. This will open TCP port in the internal zone:.

This can be helpful for quick testing and makes sure that closing the service or port will not be forgotten. To allow the imap service in the internal zone for 5 minutes, you would call.

Since applications can automatically change the firewall rules via the D-Bus interface, and depending on the PolicyKit rules regular users may be able to do the same, it can be helpful to prevent changes in some situations.

It is important to understand that the lockdown mode feature provides no real security, but merely protection against accidental or benign attempts to change the firewall.

The way the lockdown mode is currently implemented in firewalld provides no security against malicious intent. You should never modify firewall rules using other tools like iptables.

Doing so could confuse firewalld and break security or functionality. If you need to add custom firewall rules that aren't covered by firewalld features then there are two ways to do so.

To directly pass raw iptables syntax you can use the --direct option. It expects the table, chain, and priority as initial arguments and the rest of the command line is passed as is to iptables.

The following example adds a connection tracking rule for the forwarding filter table:. Additionally, firewalld implements so called rich rules , an extended syntax for specifying iptables rules in an easier way.

The following example drops all IPv4 packets originating from a certain source address:. The basic functionality for typical home router setups is available.

For a corporate production router you should not use firewalld , however, but use dedicated router and firewall devices instead.

The following provides just a few pointers on what to look for to utilize routing in firewalld :. To enable IPv4 masquerading, for example in the internal zone, issue the following command.

The following command will forward local TCP connections on port 80 to another host:. Some network services do not listen on predefined port numbers.

Instead they operate based on the portmapper or rpcbind protocol. We will use the term rpcbind from here on. When one of these services starts, it chooses a random local port and talks to rpcbind to make the port number known.

Remote systems can then query rpcbind about the network services it knows about and on which ports they are listening. Not many programs use this approach anymore today.

For protocol version 4. Starting with protocol version 4. The dynamic nature of the rpcbind protocol makes it difficult to make the affected services behind the firewall accessible.

One possibility is to configure all involved network services to use fixed port numbers. Once this is done, the fixed ports can be opened in firewalld and everything should work.

The actual port numbers used are at your discretion but should not clash with any well known port numbers assigned to other services. Applicable if action is add-dst-to-address-list or add-src-to-address-list.

Time interval after which the address will be removed from the address list specified by address-list parameter.

Used in conjunction with add-dst-to-address-list or add-src-to-address-list actions Value of will leave the address in the address list forever.

Specifies to which chain rule will be added. If the input does not match the name of an already defined chain, a new chain will be created.

Matches packets only if a given amount of bytes has been transfered through the particular connection. Matches connections per address or address block after given value is reached.

Matches packets marked via mangle facility with particular connection mark. If no-mark is set, rule will match any unmarked connection.

Can match connections that are srcnatted, dstnatted or both. Connection Rate is a firewall matcher that allow to capture traffic based on present speed of the connection.

Matches packets from related connections based on information from their connection tracking helpers. Matches destination address of a packet against user-defined address list.

Matches destination address type: unicast - IP address used for point to point transmission local - if dst-address is assigned to one of router's interfaces broadcast - packet is sent to all devices in subnet multicast - packet is forwarded to defined group of devices.

Matches packets until a given rate is exceeded. Rate is defined as packets per time interval. As opposed to the limit matcher, every flow has it's own limit.

Flow is defined by mode parameter. Matches fragmented packets. First starting fragment does not count. If connection tracking is enabled there will be no fragments as system automatically assembles every packet.

Matches packets received from HotSpot clients against various HotSpot matchers. Actual interface the packet has entered the router, if incoming interface is bridge.

Works only if use-ip-firewall is enabled in bridge settings. Set of interfaces defined in interface list. Works the same as in-bridge-port.

Works the same as in-interface. Matches the priority of an ingress packet. Matches the policy used by IpSec.

Value is written in following format: direction, policy. Direction is Used to select whether to match the policy used for decapsulation or the policy that will be used for encapsulation.

Matches IPv4 header options. This option is used to route the internet datagram based on information supplied by the source no-record-route - match packets with no record route option.

This option is used to route the internet datagram based on information supplied by the source no-router-alert - match packets with no router alter option no-source-routing - match packets with no source routing option no-timestamp - match packets with no timestamp option record-route - match packets with record route option router-alert - match packets with router alter option strict-source-routing - match packets with strict source routing option timestamp - match packets with timestamp.

Layer7 filter name defined in layer7 protocol menu. Matches packets up to a limited rate packet rate or bit rate. Rule using this matcher will match until this limit is reached.

Adds specified text at the beginning of every log message. Matches every nth packet. Actual interface the packet is leaving the router, if outgoing interface is bridge.

Works the same as out-bridge-port. Works the same as out-interface. Matches packets marked via mangle facility with particular packet mark.

If no-mark is set, rule will match any unmarked packet. PCC matcher allows to divide traffic into equal streams with ability to keep packets with specific set of options in one particular stream.

Matches if any source or destination port matches the specified list of ports or port ranges.

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